Twenty-First-Century Innovation Pathways for the U.S. Navy in the Age of Competition

US Naval War College Review – Recent programs such as the littoral combat ship, the Zumwalt-class guided-missile destroyer, and the Ford-class aircraft carrier all have highlighted the Navy’s failure to produce innovative, afford-able ships in the quantity and of the quality needed to configure a larger, redesigned fleet. Unless the Navy can address mistakes made in these programs it will have difficulty innovating success-fully—with potentially disastrous consequences.