Swedish Defense Research Agency – The role of the Baltic Fleet has varied over time – ranging from projecting naval power on the world’s oceans, to being a force predominantly adapted for coastal defence. In this report, the role in 2020 of the Baltic Fleet within the Armed Forces is thoroughly examined, detailed and analysed. The result is more complex than that represented by the dichotomy between an oceangoing and a coastal naval force. In 2020, paradoxically, shore-based capabilities in the Kaliningrad region constitute a large part of the Baltic Fleet’s organisation, reflecting the significant role of the Baltic Fleet in the defence of Russia’s western border. However, this is at the same time only partly reflected in the Baltic Fleet’s ship inventory, as it retains a firm capability to conduct out-of-area operations. In addition, in the ongoing modernisation of the Russian Navy, the Baltic Fleet takes a prominent position due to its proximity to several key Russian naval educational and shipbuilding facilities in the Russian naval capital of Saint Petersburg.