Russia’s Twenty-First-Century Naval Strategy—Combining Admiral Gorshkov with the Jeune École

US Naval War College Review – Both France after the Franco-Prussian War and post-Soviet Russia found themselves squeezed in multipolar worlds, with poor economies and loss of industrial power. Alongside Admiral Gorshkov’s continuing influence, modern Russian naval thinking has evolved toward an emphasis on smaller surface units with advanced capabilities—similar to the Jeune École concept—with implications for Western naval planning.